Home > Famous Archaeologists > Sir Mortimer Wheeler

Sir Mortimer Wheeler

By: Grahame Johnston - Updated: 14 Feb 2015 | comments*Discuss
 
Sir Mortimer Wheeler Bradford Grammar

Mortimer Wheeler was born in 1890 in Glasgow, Scotland. His family moved to Bradford, where he was first educated at Bradford Grammar School then earned a BA and MA at University College, London. While at Bradford Grammar, Wheeler developed a fondness for archaeological excavation and could be found scouring and digging in the countryside for the remains of medieval ovens and fragments of Roman pottery.

Some historians suggest that modern archaeology began with Mortimer Wheeler. This view is held because of the results of Wheeler's innovative technique of rallying enthusiasm for archaeology.

Pass Round the Hat

It is commonly regarded that rank amateurs, whose only gain was in finding something of value to sell, executed ancient archaeology of the treasure hunter period. However, the truth of early expeditions is that the eccentric practitioner of the art of archaeology visited his friends and sympathetic nobility coaxing a few pounds out of them. These donations of venture capital were used to hire cheap labourers to dig while the donors claimed the treasures when they appeared. Mortimer Wheeler's vision changed all this.

Ladies to the Rescue

One of the best Iron Age hill fort sites in Britain is at Maiden Castle, outside Dorchester. Mortimer Wheeler conducted major excavations at this site for five years leading up to WW2. This excavation is notable for his employment of volunteer workers. Wheeler recruited local women and university students by mounting a persuasive publicity campaign about archaeology. The result was that extensive excavations could be undertaken with little expense, leaving the experts on site to better plan, survey and supervise the expedition.

WW2 brought about many gender role changes and after the war Wheeler's method was widely adopted and became the established norm on academically mounted expeditions.

The Box-Grid System

However, it was not only in gender recognition nor in a volunteer workforce that made Mortimer Wheeler famous in archaeological circles. He developed a grid system of systematic digging whereby the field was divided into small squares. Each square clearly separated by a narrow baulk that was never excavated. This method permitted an area to be excavated yet preserved a vertical cross-section that revealed the strata of the site as the trench was dug.

Wheeler's box-grid system has been used universally in modern archaeology and although less popular in Europe it is still the most simple method to ensure a systematic approach.

Popular Television Show Host

Wheeler's influence has extended well into Asia. He excavated at numerous sites in India and Pakistan. After being knighted for his contribution to archaeology he spent many years furthering public education through his television shows Animal, Mineral, Vegetable; Buried Treasure; and Chronicle.

A Chronology of His Life

Sir Mortimer Wheeler dedicated much of his life to archaeology. A chronology of his life shows no time that he was not playing an important role in leading archaeology into academic recognition.

1919 - 1926 Director of Archaeology, National Museum of Wales
1926 - 1937 Keeper of Archaeology, The Museum of London
1937 - 1944 Director of the Institute of Archaeology, University College, London
1944 - 1948 Director-General of Archaeological Survey, India
1948 Professor at the Institute of Archaeology
1949 - 1950 Est. Archaeological Dept. of Pakistan & National Museum of Pakistan
1952 Knighted for his services to archaeology
1950 - 1962 Secretary of the British Academy
1976 Died in London, England

You might also like...
Share Your Story, Join the Discussion or Seek Advice..
Sorry to read absolute no mention of Tessa Verney Wheeler who was partner and co- innovator alongside her husband until her death, something Rik was the first to mention.
miki - 14-Feb-15 @ 6:36 PM
It is wonderful reading about Sir Mortimer now, as an adult, after he was very influential on my High School and University days. His work, on very early TV in Australia in the form of such things as "Animal, Mineral or Vegetable" and "Buried Treasure", along with people like Glyn Daniel, stirred my imagination enormously. It also started my interest in Ancient History and Archaeology, which has been passed on to my children. I still miss him, even after all these years.
LyndaM - 1-May-13 @ 12:22 PM
Share Your Story, Join the Discussion or Seek Advice...
Title:
(never shown)
Firstname:
(never shown)
Surname:
(never shown)
Email:
(never shown)
Nickname:
(shown)
Comment:
Validate:
Enter word:
Topics
Latest Comments
  • mike
    Re: Pottery Experts
    Hi, I am searching for an expert of Maya ceramics. I live in san Pedro lake Atitlan, and my hobby is collecting little pieces of ceramics from the…
    20 April 2017
  • Simon
    Re: Pottery Experts
    Looking for any information about an earthenware round bottomed jar i trawled up approximately 40 miles south of Lands End Cornwall
    18 April 2017
  • Shabz
    Re: Academic Qualifications to Be An Archaeologist
    I am doing bsc.geology and is it a correct path for an archaeologist?if it is, (what should I opt for my PG…
    16 April 2017
  • Ry1
    Re: Stone Tool Experts
    Does anyone out there have any idea of who might be the premier Archeometrist in the Pacific Northwest. I have recently found some artifacts…
    8 April 2017
  • nilu
    Re: Academic Qualifications to Be An Archaeologist
    my study in diploma civil engineering but I completed in 12th class i hope that it's must filed please…
    4 April 2017
  • Nag
    Re: Academic Qualifications to Be An Archaeologist
    Am studying b.a in degree i want become an archelogist next what did i have to sir
    2 April 2017
  • mishemishi
    Re: Classification
    This is very interesting. I would like to find out how best an archaeologist will prevent the loss of archaeological knowledge. And in some cases…
    27 March 2017
  • Alice
    Re: Stone Tool Experts
    Hello. Today whilst I was out in the fields waking my dog I found a stone that I kept because I thought it looked unusual. At first I thought I…
    24 March 2017
  • ArchaeologyExpert
    Re: Flavio Biondo
    Japan ideas? - Your Question:Do you know of any research projects currently ongoing in Japan that I could perhaps get involved with? I have very little
    22 March 2017
  • Moonie1977
    Re: Pottery Experts
    Hi, I am a life science researcher. One of my hobbies is to routinely go to auctions and buy unique items, including antiques. Recently I bought…
    20 March 2017
Further Reading...
Our Most Popular...
Add to my Yahoo!
Add to Google
Stumble this
Add to Twitter
Add To Facebook
RSS feed
You should seek independent professional advice before acting upon any information on the ArchaeologyExpert website. Please read our Disclaimer.