Home > Famous Archaeologists > Sir Mortimer Wheeler

Sir Mortimer Wheeler

By: Grahame Johnston - Updated: 14 Feb 2015 | comments*Discuss
 
Sir Mortimer Wheeler Bradford Grammar

Mortimer Wheeler was born in 1890 in Glasgow, Scotland. His family moved to Bradford, where he was first educated at Bradford Grammar School then earned a BA and MA at University College, London. While at Bradford Grammar, Wheeler developed a fondness for archaeological excavation and could be found scouring and digging in the countryside for the remains of medieval ovens and fragments of Roman pottery.

Some historians suggest that modern archaeology began with Mortimer Wheeler. This view is held because of the results of Wheeler's innovative technique of rallying enthusiasm for archaeology.

Pass Round the Hat

It is commonly regarded that rank amateurs, whose only gain was in finding something of value to sell, executed ancient archaeology of the treasure hunter period. However, the truth of early expeditions is that the eccentric practitioner of the art of archaeology visited his friends and sympathetic nobility coaxing a few pounds out of them. These donations of venture capital were used to hire cheap labourers to dig while the donors claimed the treasures when they appeared. Mortimer Wheeler's vision changed all this.

Ladies to the Rescue

One of the best Iron Age hill fort sites in Britain is at Maiden Castle, outside Dorchester. Mortimer Wheeler conducted major excavations at this site for five years leading up to WW2. This excavation is notable for his employment of volunteer workers. Wheeler recruited local women and university students by mounting a persuasive publicity campaign about archaeology. The result was that extensive excavations could be undertaken with little expense, leaving the experts on site to better plan, survey and supervise the expedition.

WW2 brought about many gender role changes and after the war Wheeler's method was widely adopted and became the established norm on academically mounted expeditions.

The Box-Grid System

However, it was not only in gender recognition nor in a volunteer workforce that made Mortimer Wheeler famous in archaeological circles. He developed a grid system of systematic digging whereby the field was divided into small squares. Each square clearly separated by a narrow baulk that was never excavated. This method permitted an area to be excavated yet preserved a vertical cross-section that revealed the strata of the site as the trench was dug.

Wheeler's box-grid system has been used universally in modern archaeology and although less popular in Europe it is still the most simple method to ensure a systematic approach.

Popular Television Show Host

Wheeler's influence has extended well into Asia. He excavated at numerous sites in India and Pakistan. After being knighted for his contribution to archaeology he spent many years furthering public education through his television shows Animal, Mineral, Vegetable; Buried Treasure; and Chronicle.

A Chronology of His Life

Sir Mortimer Wheeler dedicated much of his life to archaeology. A chronology of his life shows no time that he was not playing an important role in leading archaeology into academic recognition.

1919 - 1926 Director of Archaeology, National Museum of Wales
1926 - 1937 Keeper of Archaeology, The Museum of London
1937 - 1944 Director of the Institute of Archaeology, University College, London
1944 - 1948 Director-General of Archaeological Survey, India
1948 Professor at the Institute of Archaeology
1949 - 1950 Est. Archaeological Dept. of Pakistan & National Museum of Pakistan
1952 Knighted for his services to archaeology
1950 - 1962 Secretary of the British Academy
1976 Died in London, England

You might also like...
Share Your Story, Join the Discussion or Seek Advice..
Sorry to read absolute no mention of Tessa Verney Wheeler who was partner and co- innovator alongside her husband until her death, something Rik was the first to mention.
miki - 14-Feb-15 @ 6:36 PM
It is wonderful reading about Sir Mortimer now, as an adult, after he was very influential on my High School and University days. His work, on very early TV in Australia in the form of such things as "Animal, Mineral or Vegetable" and "Buried Treasure", along with people like Glyn Daniel, stirred my imagination enormously. It also started my interest in Ancient History and Archaeology, which has been passed on to my children. I still miss him, even after all these years.
LyndaM - 1-May-13 @ 12:22 PM
Share Your Story, Join the Discussion or Seek Advice...
Title:
(never shown)
Firstname:
(never shown)
Surname:
(never shown)
Email:
(never shown)
Nickname:
(shown)
Comment:
Validate:
Enter word:
Topics
Latest Comments
  • dcroome
    Re: Stone Tool Experts
    My parents have a stone object 14 cm long, 12 cm wide and flat at one end for approx 2 cm, then narrowing to 8 cm wide and rounded off at other…
    22 April 2019
  • Alisa
    Re: Pottery Experts
    I don't know what kind of pottery it's redish in color the bottom is about 7 inches round and the neck is about 1 inch tall and 3 inches wide it's…
    22 April 2019
  • Jess
    Re: Pottery Experts
    I found a small piece of potary with a lot if wear and lots of small markings. Looks like there was handles on it and one point and they broke off…
    19 April 2019
  • Pulse
    Re: Academic Qualifications to Be An Archaeologist
    I'm doing B. Arch and I want to become a archeologist.. What are the qualifications required?
    1 April 2019
  • Chris
    Re: Pottery Experts
    Hi. I’ve recently brought a few items from a local auction and I was wondering if you would be able to tell me if they are genuine or not? A…
    31 March 2019
  • Will
    Re: Pottery Experts
    Hi. I have found what I think is redwear there are no marks on the pot which has a small opening. It was found on a beach in England about 10…
    28 March 2019
  • Cuc
    Re: Pottery Experts
    I have a wide pot with a lid and c shaped handles facing outward and all around the outside of the pot. I think it is a yokut pot. But would love…
    27 March 2019
  • Wabblit
    Re: Stone Tool Experts
    Hello I’ve found a very unusual stone and am convinced it’s something very old possibly a tool. How or who can I show it to to find out more??
    23 March 2019
  • Foxy
    Re: Be a Volunteer Archaeologist
    Always wanted to go on a dig.. ever since I was young and heard of the king tut find I was hooked on ancient sites and what those…
    19 March 2019
  • shiva
    Re: Archaeological Excavation
    i'm studying for competative exam. so i need to learn more about Archaelological Excavation. please help me.
    14 March 2019